Active Ingredients: Isotretinoin
Also, it has been reported that LAB-based systems incorporating fatty acid esters in an oil phase have a large ME region in their phase diagrams.
It has also been reported that solubilization of water is easier in systems containing LAB as emulsifier and PO as a co-emulsifier. The phase diagrams are represented in Fig.
The phase boundary was determined by observing the changes of the sample appearance from turbid to transparent or from transparent to turbid based on visual identification. When the ME region extends from an oil-rich region i.
The phase study revealed that the maximum solubilization of water was achieved in ME systems when Km was 3:1 and so it was fixed at 3:1 for further studies.
The obtained results suggested that the maximum solubilization of water Wmax was increased with decrease in the amphiphile content in the ratio of oil to Emix in the order of 0.
The Wmax was achieved at a ratio of oil to Emix less than 0. It was considered that IPM, due to its preferable chemical structure, probably penetrated the interfacial layer and interacted with LAB, increasing its efficiency in solubilizing water.
Hence, the obtained results indicated that LAB showed a good efficiency and water-solubilizing capacity in the presence of IPM.
These observations were quite consistent with previously reported results Djekic and Primorac. The unloaded vehicles have a globule size in the range of 22.
Two explanations, 1 undissolved drug acting as a emulsifier and 2 reduction in emulsifier mobility, are offered in the literature for the decrease in droplet size with the addition of the drug due to deposition of drug particles at the interface of ME Biruss and Valenta; Djekic and Primorac; Fanun; Kantarci et al.
It has been reported that the lowest conductivity plots extend to the largest droplet radius.
The size of the droplet of unloaded ME with low conductivity values was greater than that of the ITTN-loaded formulation with higher conductivity values Patel et al.
Although the PDI values of all formulations were very low, indicating uniformity of droplet size within each formulation, it was least for I 6 0.
An emulsifier can stabilize the emulsion, not only just by forming a mechanical barrier, but also by producing an electrical electrostatic barrier or surface charge.
The electrical surface charge of the droplets is produced by the ionization of interfacial film-forming components. The surface potential and the resulting zeta potential of emulsion droplets will depend on the extent of ionization of emulsifiers.
For MEs with non-ionic emulsifier, the zeta potential can be used to analyze the charge of the system Biruss and Valenta. Hence, all the plain and medicated ME formulations were found to be optically clear.
The TEM images revealed that the particle size was in the nanometric range and that particle had nearly spherical morphology without aggregation which is in accordance with particle size analysis.
The samples were examined by ocular inspection in a cross polarizer for sample homogeneity and birefringence. All ME formulations appeared completely dark when observed under cross polarizer which confirmed its optically isotropic nature Draize et al.
The rate of diffusion of a drug is dependent on the pH of the formulation.
It is one of the factors influencing skin penetration Patel et al. The pH values for ME formulations were found in the range of 6.
Electrical conductivity is a structure-sensitive property and there are some studies reported on the systems of non-ionic emulsifiers.