Active Ingredients: Ciprofloxacin
There are dozens of chemical BFRs with different properties. These include brominated bisphenols, diphenylethers, cyclododecane, and others.
When plastics catch fire, the long-chain polymers in them heat and break up very quickly, releasing flammable gases that combine with oxygen to spread the fire.
When BFRs are introduced into plastics, they act by suppressing the release of free radicals, which slows the fire. The BFRs are released very quickly in a narrow temperature range as they heat up, which makes them effective flame retardants, unlike chlorine.
Products in which BFRs are used are found everywhere. BFRs are used in polyurethane foam, textiles, plastics, rubber, resins, etc. Office products include computer casings and circuit boards, printers, fax machines, lighting, furniture, etc.
PentaBDE is highly bioaccumulative. More testing is needed to determine suspected sensitive endpoints.
Currently, it is not known how PBDEs and other BFRs are released into the environment, but they can be found in samples taken virtually anywhere indoor and outdoor air, surface waters, sewage sludge, foods, and biota. PBDEs are related to a number of important topics warranting special attention, including children's health, endocrine disruption, persistent organic pollutants POPs, emerging environmental challenges, and high production volume chemicals.
Regulations for BFRs are appearing along with reporting and monitoring requirements. There is interest in developing a substitute for BFRs. Europe is ahead of the U. They have gathered a lot of information on production and are working on plans for mitigation.
Another action U. It will likely cover only flame retardants for fabrics, but those used in foam are possible candidates as well. The Agency also could require more toxicity data and risk assessments and could restrict use.
Some electronics manufacturers are working on alternative chemicals. In the 1990 s, Japanese companies took BFRs out of many products.
Furniture manufacturers, including Ikea, Eddie Bauer, and Crate and Barrel have requested alternatives to PentaBDE, and Hickory Springs has converted a plant to produce a non- halogenated phosphorous-based compound.
There have been some problems with this new process, however, as some of the treated foam comes out scorched and discolored. BFRs keep the foam white.
Some buyers won't accept the discoloration.
Hites thought the compound had a strong resemblance to PCBs. The Stockholm presentation was so shocking it is likely responsible for the focus, within the emerging pollution workshop, on BFRs.
After seeing the Stockholm presentation, Hites decided to look at PBDE concentrations in human maternal and umbilical cord blood to represent the baby's blood.