Active Ingredients: Doxycycline
NE was given as constant intravenous infusion via a catheter Vygon, Aachen, Germany positioned in the left jugular vein. Animals with an unconnected mini-osmotic pump replacement served as controls for 14 days. When NaCl or NE infusion was limited to 3 or 4 days, the catheter was connected to a 20-ml syringe placed in an infusion pump Infors, Basel, Switzerland.
The syringes were protected from light.
Control animals were infused with 0. The study groups are summarized in Fig. NE was purchased from Sigma Deisenhofen, Germany. Corresponding measurements are indicated: zymography Zymo; hemodynamic measurement Hem; RNA preparation and ribonuclease protection assay RPA; histological analysis Histo.
After the hemodynamic measurements were obtained, the hearts were rapidly excised, and the RV free wall was trimmed away. Both ventricles were weighed after freezing in liquid nitrogen. In the present study we showed the increase of various MMP activities in the joints by in vivo fluorescence imaging together with ex vivo zymography, as well as demonstrated for the first time that SDD worsens arthritis-induced bone microarchitectural alterations most probably independently of MMP inhibition.
The total number of animals used in the experiments were 33 17 in the 30 days and 16 in the 16 days experimental series. Induction of the Arthritis Arthritis was induced by repeated intraperitoneal i.This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Background Lyme disease is the most frequent tick-borne infectious disease in.
Since there are no data for chronic doxycycline use in arthritis, the dosage and concentration were based on earlier publications related to other issues Prall et al.
To avoid the precipitate formation and reach the expected doxycycline plasma concentration, the water was acidified to pH of 3.
Mice provided with acidified tap water were used for controls.
All water bottles were changed every other day by the research staff. Experimental Design The study was performed in two series as outlined in Figure 1. The mechanonociceptive threshold of the hind paws were evaluated on days 5, 15, and 24, neutrophil myeloperoxidase MPO activity and plasma extravasation on days 2, 14, and 21, MMP activity on day 4, changes of the periarticular bone structure on day 30, arthritis severity and joint function every day during the 30 days experimental period.
Following the micro-computed tomography micro-CT analysis, animals were euthanized, blood samples were collected for plasma concentration analyis of doxycycline and ankle joints were removed for gelatin zymography.
Water consumption was checked every other day, while body weight was measured every day.
Evaluation of Disease Severity Visible arthritic signs hind limb edema and hyperemia were semiquantitatively scored using a scale of 0—10 0—1. Evaluation of Mechanonociception The dynamic plantar aesthesiometer Ugo Basile 37400, Comerio, Italy was used for the assessment of the mechanosensitivity of plantar surface of the hind paw.
Mice were placed into acrylic glass boxes with wire grid floor, then after acclimation the plantar surface was touched with a straight metal filament lifting with increasing upward force maximum force of 10 g with 4 s latency until the animal withdrew his paw.
Mechanical hyperalgesia was represented as a percentage decrease of the initial before serum injection withdrawal thresholds Horvath et al.
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